Seit dem 02. Juni 2005 benötigen alle Touristen und Besucher, gemäß dem Department of Forests, eine Genehmigung, um die in Bhutan geschützten Gebiete (Protected Areas) zu besuchen.
Sollten Sie also eine Trekking Tour oder auch Tageswanderungen planen, so empfehlen wir, im Vorfeld die Routen für die geplanten Wanderungen prüfen zu lassen, damit gegebenenfalls eine Genehmigung eingeholt werden kann. Hiermit wird vermieden, dass es vor Ort zu Komplikationen kommt .
1. Torsa Strict Nature Reserve
2. Jigme Dorji National Park
3. Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park
4. Phibsoo Wildlife Sanctuary
5. Royal Manas National Park
6. Thrumshingla National Park
7. Bumdelling Wildlife Sanctuary
8. Sakten Wildlife Sanctuary
9. Khaling Wildlife Sanctuary
The protected areas of Bhutan comprises four national parks, four wildlife sanctuaries and one strict nature reserve. Revised in 1993 to represent Bhutan's complete ecosystems, the parks network encompasses 26.3 percent of the land (10,758 square km). In 1999, an additional 9.5 percent of the country was demarcated as biological corridors linking all nine protected areas, and declared a gift to the earth from the Bhutanese people.
All parks are legally protected with varying management prescriptions based on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature's categories for protected areas, with a majority of parks zoned into core, administrative, buffer and multiple-use zones. The common conservation approach integrating conservation priorities with economic development needs, aims to ensure the long-term conservation of the parks' natural resources while bringing sustainable economic development to local communities. The trust fund supported the legal gazettement of the parks and demarcating their boundaries, and is currently financing the recruitment and specialised training of crucial human resources to manage these parks.
Torsa Strict Nature Reserve (644 km²) protects the westernmost temperate forests of the country, from broadleaf forests to alpine meadows within an altitude range of 1.400-4.800 m, and includes the small lakes of Sinchulungpa. Unlike Bhutan's other protected areas, Torsa has no resident human population.
Jigme Dorji National Park (4.329 km²), is the largest protected area in Bhutan with an altitude range of 1.400 to above 7.000 m. The park is a vital watershed covering almost half of northern Bhutan, and is an important natural conservatory of glaciers, alpine meadows and scrublands, sub-alpine and temperate conifer forests, warm and cool temperate broadleaf forests, major rivers and streams, and the flora and fauna that inhabit these ecosystems. Jigme Dorji harbors numerous charismatic species of wildlife, many of which are endangered or extinct elsewhere in the world. These include the tiger (Panthera tigris), snow leopard (Uncia uncia), takin (Budorcas taxicolor), blue sheep (Pseudouis nayaur), musk deer (Moshcus chrysogaster), Himalayan black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus), marmot (Marmota himalayana), red panda (Ailurus fulgens) and several species of pheasant. The park also is famous for its flora, and more than 300 species of plants found here are used in indigenous medicine. Jigme Dorji has a resident human population of more than 1,000 households. The integrated management of the park, initially supported by the trust fund, is now financed by the Global Environment Facility and the United Nations Development Program. The conservation strategy adopted here is to support the park management to address the main threats to the park's biodiversity and remove the causes of these threats by implementing various activities, including recruitment and training staff, infrastructure development, enforcement of legal systems to mitigate poaching, and implementation of community resources management plans to promote sustainable livelihoods and alternative approaches to help conserve and sustainably utilise the park's resources.
Royal Manas National Park (1000 km²), Bhutan's oldest protected area is also the conservation showpiece of the Kingdom. Its location is strategic as it is adjacent to Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park and, to the south, it forms a trans-frontier reserve with Manas National Park in India, an important World Heritage Site. Thus, Royal Manas is an integral part of a protected areas complex ranging from 150 to 2.600m altitude, that includes habitats from lowland tropical forests to permanent ice fields. It is also the only park in Bhutan where the greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) occur. The rare golden langur (Presbytis geei), pygmy hog (Sus salvanius) and hispid hare (Caprolagus hispidus) also are found in Manas. The park contains more significant species than any other park, and already 362 species of birds, including four species of hornbills (rufousnecked, wreathed, pied and great indian), have been confirmed. Several plant species are valued as food crops, while a number are of commercial, medicinal, and religious significance. Thus, the park will serve as a genetic depository for these valuable plants. The trust fund supported infrastructure development and preliminary biological and socio-economic assessments. Bhutan's first park management plan was prepared based on data from these surveys, and is currently being implemented with financial assistance from the World Wildlife Fund. The National Women's Association of Bhutan is implementing community development activities for the park's resident 215 households, such as enhancing rural income through increasing farmland productivity, promoting cottage industries and providing rural credit facilities.
Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park (1.400 km²) covers a wide range of habitat types, from broadleaf forests at 600m to coniferous forests, alpine pasture and lakes to permanent ice on the peak of Dorshingla at 4.925m. The park constitutes the largest and richest temperate forest reserve in the entire Himalayas. More than 449 species of birds, including the endangered black-necked crane (Grus nigricollis), inhabit the combined area of Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park and Royal Manas National Parks - more than any other reserve in Asia. Most preliminary biological assessments and socio-economic surveys of the 410 resident households have been completed here, and a park management plan is being prepared under a project financed by the Government of the Netherlands.
Thrumshingla National Park (768 km²), with an altitude range of 700-4.400m, is the second major temperate park in Bhutan and protects large tracts of old-growth fir forests. Six species of globally threatened birds are found here: rofous necked hornbill (Aceros nepalensis), rofous-throated wren-babbler (Spelaeomis caudatus), Satyr tragopan (Tragopan satyra), beautiful nuthatch (Sitta formosa), Ward's trogon (Harpactes wardii) and chestnut-breasted partridge (Aroborphila mandellii). A new species for Bhutan, the wedge-billed wren-babbler (Spenocichla humei), was recently discovered in the park. The Park contains some spectacular scenic views, including beautiful forests from alpine to subtropical broadleaf types. The soil of this area is particularly fragile, rendering it unsuitable for logging or other development, although it has excellent tourism potential. A park management plan is currently being developed for Thrumshingla, and is supported by World Wildlife Fund. Comparatively, the park's resident 20 households makes it one of Bhutan's lesser populated protected areas.
Bumdelling Wildlife Sanctuary (1.545 km²), ranging from 1.400 to 6.000m contains a rich diversity of flora and fauna as well as some of Bhutan's most scenic alpine lakes. Bumdelling Valley, located within the sanctuary is also one of Bhutan's two wintering spots for the endangered black-necked crane (Grus nigricollis). The sanctuary contains 190 resident households and several cultural and religious sites of international significance. The trust fund is supplementing Denmark's financial assistance to the park to establish crucial infrastructure.
Sakten Wildlife Sanctuary (650 km²), ranging from 1.800 through 4.400m is designed to protect the easternmost temperate ecosystems of Bhutan where some endemic species are found, including the eastern blue pine (Pinus bhutanica) and black-rumped magpie (Pica pica bottanensis), among others. These inhabit only the eastern part of Bhutan.
Khaling Wildlife Sanctuary (273 km²), the smallest of Bhutan's protected areas with an altitude range of 400-2.200 meters, is important for elephant (Elephas maximus), gaur and other tropical wildlife and may also contain the rare pygmy hog (Sus salvanius) and hispid hare (Caprolagus hispidus). Both are known from the Khaling reserve on the Indian side of the border, with which this forms a trans-border reserve.
Phibsoo Wildlife Sanctuary (278 km²), a relatively small protected area ranging from 200 through 1.600 meters, is known for its especially important biogeographic position. It is the only reserve in Bhutan to have chital (Axis axis) or spotted deer, as well as the only remaining natural sal (Shorea robusta) forest in the country. Like the Manas region, Phibsoo is also home to the elephant, tiger and gaur (Bos gaurus).